ISSN 2686 - 9675 (Print)
ISSN 2782 - 1935 (Online)

Эволюция китайской доктрины экономической безопасности с 1949 по XXI век

With the 8th Plan, perhaps the most important and with world-renowned results, China boosted itself on the international stage as an emerging commercial power, demarcating a line of development that would extend until the 11th Plan, based on industrial competitiveness, scientific competitiveness -technique and foreign trade with significant investment in key sectors such as infrastructure and energy; all without neglecting the standard of living and the cultural level of the population (always adapting it to the demands of the accelerated growth of the economic system of the socialist market).

Finally, with the crisis of 2008 and from the 12th Plan, the direction of the economy takes a more independent course from external demand and points to self-sustainability and “focuses its attention on innovation as a vital element for the transformation of the economy of the country ”.

It is important to highlight that China develops long-term economic projects in parallel with the five-year plans; for example:

- Along with the 9th Five-Year Plan, the first medium and long-term plan based on the socialist market economy was also approved: the "Long-term plan until 2010" (1995). This plan envisaged doubling the GDP of the year 2000 by 2010. The final result was not a doubling, but a quintupling of the GDP for the year 2010. And currently, together with the 13th Plan, the long-term plan called “Made in China 2025” (2015), which is the first phase of a strategy planned for 30 years that includes: “reducing development differences with other countries (2025), maintaining the position (2035) and leading innovation (2045)”. Made in China 2025 aims to make China the world's leading technological power through the implementation of policies to restructure the manufacturing industry aimed at "innovation, intellectual property and sustainable development". (Gómez P., 2016);

- During the course of the 9th Five-Year Plan, the “New Security Concept” was also implemented in China, which included a win-win diplomacy (maximize benefits without harming the other) and identified 5 types of security: economic, military, political (regime), social-environmental and scientific-technological. China, of course, regards economic security as the highest priority in the post-Cold War period (Kumar, 2012). On the other hand, military power will be used strictly in defense scenarios, self-defense with immediate response to an attack, and active defense (The State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China, 2019).

- China is currently implementing the "One Belt, One Way" initiative. This is an ambitious project consisting of two parts: The Silk Road and the Sea Route. Both consist of the participation of more than 60 countries (Europe, Russia, the CIS, the countries of the Near and Middle East, the ASEAN countries) with a `total` of 4.4 billion people and with the aim of developing infrastructure logistics (transportation and communications) to improve the flow of supplies, migration and tourism flows, information exchange, research and technology, among others. With this initiative, China does not impose any ideology or changes in economic policy, but an opportunity for the mutual economic development of the participating countries. (Виноградов, 2018)

2 — 2021
Youji Paolo Nicolás Takayama Constantini, Kazan Federal University