ISSN 2686 - 9675 (Print)
ISSN 2782 - 1935 (Online)

Эволюция китайской доктрины экономической безопасности с 1949 по XXI век

After the collapse of the Qing dynasty (1644-1911), whose government left the nation in political and economic stagnation, along with drastic inequality and famine, a political-economic revolution began in China accompanied by modern industrial development, as well as the development of communication and transportation channels. After a `total` political fragmentation and a civil war, the Nationalist Party (Guomindang) reached a consensus in the nation, thus beginning the period of a "nationalist China", which lasted for a short period of 10 years (1927-1937). After this brief period of peace, the war against Japan began (1937) and accompanied by the Second World War (1939). The war against Japan greatly weakened the nationalist coalition, whose army after 1945 faced the communist army in a civil war, with the Communist Party winning. Thereafter, the period of "Popular China" began in 1949, which represents a great divide in Chinese history and a turning point towards political (towards socialism) and economic change (rapid, rapid and modern growth, unprecedented in history). (Naughton, 2007). With the beginning of the period of Popular China, under the mandate of Mao Zedong, the medium-term economic and social plans called “Five-Year Plans” began, which originated in the Soviet Union as an instrument of centralized planning for strategic and of economic policy (Antuña S., 2016). Therefore, to understand the evolution of the economic security of the People's Republic of China, the evolution of the five-year plans must be understood, since these are instruments that define the security mechanisms for economic development and the economic values indispensable for the country's economy.

Table 1 clearly shows development patterns that change according to the priorities or fundamental values on which the country's economy is supported. In the 1st and 2nd Plan, the priority is to establish relations of socialist production through the nationalization of industries, focus on the development of heavy industry and agriculture, and construction of infrastructure for transportation and communications.

After the Great Famine, China realized that economic development was not only important in the development of heavy industry, but also in consumer goods (especially clothing and food). For this reason, starting with the 3rd Plan, self-sufficiency was taken into consideration; Furthermore, until the 4th Plan, the first steps were taken for national defense and innovation; however, they were not yet able to control overproduction caused by excessively rapid economic growth.

From the 5th Plan, and with Mao Zedong's departure from the presidency (1973), the periods of reform began and the objectives would become a guide towards which to approach as best as possible and no longer a goal of strict compliance (indicative planning) and, in the 6th Plan, the opening to foreign capital began, trade intensified and the `issue` of environmental protection began to be addressed. From the 5th to the 7th Plan, the priorities continued to be the development of industry and agriculture, but maintaining stable growth, constantly comparing them with that of other sectors such as transport and communications infrastructure, technology and adequate fiscal stability. and mercantile.

2 — 2021
Youji Paolo Nicolás Takayama Constantini, Kazan Federal University