ISSN 2686 - 9675 (Print)
ISSN 2782 - 1935 (Online)

Эволюция китайской доктрины экономической безопасности с 1949 по XXI век


To understand the concept of economic security, it is essential to understand the idea of "security", which evokes in the person the feeling of belonging, stability and direction, and whose sphere of influence fundamentally covers the political, economic, social and technological sphere. Security provides man, as a social being, with a purpose and a scale of values in the face of risk. Its antithesis, insecurity, leads to an excess of individualism, opportunism and irresponsibility that, consequently, ends up causing inequality and marginalization on different scales. (International Labor Office, 2004) Security is, therefore, a multidimensional system that can only be defined considering its different dimensions and their interaction between them to face risks or threats that endanger the sustainable development of the existence of the individual and, therefore, of the society. Its direct institutional representation at the state level is “national security”, which encompasses five essential dimensions: military dimension, informatics dimension, environmental dimension, economic dimension, and political dimension. Studying one dimension in particular requires that the others be considered as well, since they are all complementary and the weakness of one represents the weakness of the system as a whole. (Dr.Csath, et al., 2019) Given the exorbitant economic growth of the Chinese economy and its emergence as a nascent pole of power and influence in the world, it is imperative to study the evolution of its doctrine in the area of its national security; in this particular investigation, in its doctrine of economic security. Economic security is a form of security that arises from the dangers that come from a comprehensive global market (globalization) and its priority is the defense of fundamental economic values. This is achieved through political mechanisms based on human rights, in social welfare systems, and in a correct and modern institutional framework, which must guarantee minimal damage in the face of threats, both external (for example, economic sanctions, unfair competition and abusive, subsidies or dumping) as internal (for example, revolts, policies that limit human rights or the absence of institutions or groups for the representation of the majority). (Nesadurai, 2006)

It is important to establish basic mechanisms of economic security in every State, since these guarantee “minimum” conditions to live with dignity, respecting fundamental human rights and establishing a society of good living. To establish these mechanisms it is necessary to recover and promote collective action, cooperation based on common objectives to achieve a joint vision: the development of society.

The lack of these basic mechanisms leads to a degree of insecurity that plunges society into opportunism, irresponsibility, lack of moderation, lack of tolerance and violence, where those who possess and monopolize more resources are usually more favored, leaving a space for marginalization and the subsequent "retributive justice" (violent actions of the marginalized classes against elites in the long term). (International Labor Office, 2004)

Being clear about the concept of economic security, one can proceed to answer the question: How has economic security evolved in the People's Republic of China? To understand the beginnings of this doctrine, it is necessary to establish clear historical parameters.

2 — 2021
Youji Paolo Nicolás Takayama Constantini, Kazan Federal University